1. Benign thyroid tumours
2. Types of neoplasms
3. Treatment methods
4. Prognosis of Graves’ disease
About 95% of all neoplasms of the thyroid gland are benign. Some tumours cause serious dysfunction of the body and require immediate intervention. Internationally, such pathologies can be successfully treated and the organ can be preserved. Most surgeries on the thyroid are minimally invasive. Over 95% of patients are satisfied with the treatment results. Read more about how benign neoplasms of the thyroid gland are treated in foreign clinics in this MediGlobus article.
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Benign thyroid tumours – what are they?
Benign thyroid tumours are neoplasms of the thyroid gland that are not malignant. They develop as a result of abnormal growth and division of cells of this organ.
The pathology is related to malfunctions of the autonomic nervous system and abnormal thyroid hormone production. About 80% of cases of the disease are diagnosed in women. The average age of diagnosis is 40-50 years old.
Benign neoplasms of the thyroid gland occur in 30% of the adult population of the planet. In many people, these tumours do not manifest themselves in any way and do not require intervention. In such cases, constant monitoring is indicated. If symptoms appear and the tumour grows, conservative or surgical treatment may be needed.
Doctors abroad conduct comprehensive diagnostics of the thyroid gland. The accuracy of diagnosis exceeds 99%. An individual therapy program is chosen for each patient. To be treated in a foreign clinic, leave an application.
Signs of a benign thyroid tumour
The thyroid is a part of the endocrine system. It consists of glands that secrete various hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones are responsible for many vital functions of the body: metabolism, cardiovascular and nervous system function, thermoregulation, normal brain function, reproductive function, etc. Signs of pathologies of this organ are various.
In the early stage of the disease, symptoms of a benign thyroid tumour do not manifest themselves. As the tumour grows, patients feel lumps in the neck and develop the following symptoms:
What are benign tumours of the thyroid gland?
More than 90% of benign thyroid tumours are adenomas. They develop from thyroid tissue cells. Such neoplasms are conditionally benign. Some of them can develop into cancerous ones. Oxyphilic adenomas are the most dangerous, and the most common are follicular and toxic thyroid adenomas. Such tumours are treated surgically.
Thyroid cysts are benign nodular neoplasms that are filled with fluid. In 90% of cases, they have no pronounced symptoms. Cysts become dangerous with inflammation. Also, these neoplasms can grow rapidly in size and compress the trachea or blood vessels. Nodules up to 1 cm in size should be observed. Large cysts are surgically removed.
Methods of treatment of benign tumours of the thyroid gland
If the neoplasm is small, it is treated with drug therapy. Patients take prescribed medications to normalize the level of thyroid hormones.
Tumours that are large and produce symptoms need to be removed by surgery or radiofrequency ablation.
Foreign doctors take a personalized and interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of each patient. This means that a multidisciplinary team of specialists works with the patient and selects the most effective and safest therapy for them.
Surgical removal of a benign tumour of the thyroid gland
For benign large thyroid tumours, thyroidectomy is the surgical procedure of choice. The scope of surgery is determined by the doctor after a comprehensive examination.
In some cases, complete removal of the thyroid gland is preferable. After such intervention, patients will need to undergo lifelong hormone replacement therapy.
Surgeons in the leading hospitals perform minimally invasive thyroid resection. The surgery does not leave a scar on the neck. The thyroid gets removed through an incision on the inner side of the lower lip. The operation takes 1-2 hours.
Major medical centres abroad use the da Vinci robotic system to perform thyroidectomies. This equipment increases the precision of the surgeon’s actions and reduces the risk of ligament and tracheal damage to zero.
Chemical and thermal ablation of benign neoplasms of the thyroid
Chemical or thermal (laser and radiofrequency) ablation is used to reduce the volume of benign thyroid nodules. Chemical ablation involves injecting ethanol into the neoplasm. This procedure should be considered a first-line treatment for cystic thyroid nodules. Ethanol has therapeutic efficacy comparable to radiofrequency ablation (RFA), but the recurrence rate after this method is higher.
Ablation is performed under general anaesthesia. A special probe, inserted through a small puncture in the neck, is used to access the affected area of the thyroid. All manipulations are performed under ultrasound monitoring. This minimizes the risk of damaging nerves, arteries and veins. The cosmetic defect of the intervention is practically invisible after 2 weeks.
The effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation for reducing thyroid volume is superior to laser ablation. Therefore, RFA is used more frequently.
During this procedure, the thyroid gland is treated with an electric current. This shrinks the enlarged nodule and eliminates the symptoms of the disease. RFA lasts 30-40 minutes on average. The volume of the node is reduced by 60-90%.
Radioiodine therapy for benign neoplasms of the thyroid
Radioactive iodine therapy is one of the main treatments for toxic thyroid adenomas (Plummer’s disease). It involves a single administration of a drug with a radioactive substance, the isotope I-131.
The medicine comes in the form of chewable tablets or a solution. It normalizes the production of hormones for 6-8 weeks. The patient is hospitalized for 3 days.
The prognosis for a benign tumour in the thyroid gland
The prognosis for the treatment of benign neoplasms of the thyroid is favourable. Surgery produces a positive effect in 99% of cases. Chemical and thermal ablation reduce the volume of thyroid nodules by 60-90%. The radioiodine is effective in 9 out of 10 patients.
Clinics for the treatment of benign thyroid tumours
Reviews of treatment for a benign tumour on the thyroid
Hospital: Navarra University Hospital
Procedure: Radioiodine therapy
Patient’s age: 47 years
Patient from: Chernygov
Marina: “I was diagnosed with a follicular thyroid tumour, an adenoma. Over time, the neoplasm greatly increased in size and symptoms appeared. Medication therapy did not help. I decided to have surgery abroad. I didn’t even consider it in my country. I contacted a company that deals with medical tourism, and I chose the best option for me: the University hospital of Navarra. I had a successful surgery there and was prescribed hormonal therapy. Now everything is fine.”
Hospital: Лив Улус
Patient’s age: 48 лет
Patient from: Karaganda
Adiya: “I thought I had thyroid cancer, not a benign tumour. It turned out that I did not have cancer. This was very encouraging and reassuring. However, my thyroid fibroadenoma had symptoms that were not resolved by taking medications. I decided not to delay the situation, and go for treatment abroad. I underwent additional examinations and had radiofrequency ablation of the thyroid gland in Turkey. The procedure had good results.”
MediGlobus coordinating physicians will arrange a medical trip for the treatment of a benign thyroid tumour to one of the best clinics abroad. We are in touch with our patients 24/7.
- The Johns Hopkins University
- National Center for Biotechnology Information
- Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
- National Center for Biotechnology Information